Scientific Literature on Arterosil HP’s Core Ingredient

Rhamnan sulfate from Monostroma nitidum

October 11, 2022

In recent decades, scientists have explored natural ingredients, particularly from the sea, that can be shown to support cardiovascular health.

One of these ingredients, rhamnan sulfate, is found in greatest abundance in the rare green seaweed, Monostroma nitidum. Laboratory, animal, and human studies established that this particular rhamnan sulfate makes a powerful contribution to foundational health. These benefits can’t be found in everyday seaweed. Monostroma nitidum is rare and challenging to harvest, with unique biochemical properties that have been rigorously researched.

Today, this research is continuing on a much larger scale, involving some of the most important scientific institutions in the world, including the American Heart Association and the National Institutes of Health.

Major Discoveries

Scientific studies have revealed that rhamnan sulfate from Monostroma nitidum can benefit human health in several different ways.  These include:

  • Protecting arterial health
  • Supporting healthy blood flow
  • Regenerating the endothelial glycocalyx (the inner lining of every blood vessel)
  • Helping maintain blood sugar levels in the normal range
  • Protecting intestinal health

Scientific Studies

Research on this important ingredient is constantly expanding. Here are some of the important studies that have been published:

  • Cancel LM, Tarbell JM. Rhamnan sulfate enhances the endothelial glycocalyx and decreases the LDL permeability of human coronary artery endothelial cells in vitro. The FASEB Journal. 2013;27(S1):896.3-896.3. doi:
  • Cui JF, Ye H, Zhu YJ, Li YP, Wang JF, Wang P. Characterization and Hypoglycemic Activity of a Rhamnan-Type Sulfated Polysaccharide Derivative. Mar Drugs. 2019;17(1):E21. doi:10.3390/md17010021
  • Dwivedi R, Pomin VH. Marine Antithrombotics. Marine Drugs. 2020;18(10):514. doi:10.3390/md18100514
  • Harada N, Maeda M. Chemical structure of antithrombin-active Rhamnan sulfate from Monostrom nitidum. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1998;62(9):1647-1652. doi:10.1271/bbb.62.1647
  • Liu X, Wang S, Cao S, et al. Structural Characteristics and Anticoagulant Property In Vitro and In Vivo of a Seaweed Sulfated Rhamnan. Marine Drugs. 2018;16(7):243. doi:10.3390/md16070243
  • Okamoto T, Akita N, Terasawa M, Hayashi T, Suzuki K. Rhamnan sulfate extracted from Monostroma nitidum attenuates blood coagulation and inflammation of vascular endothelial cells. J Nat Med. 2019;73(3):614-619. doi:10.1007/s11418-019-01289-5
  • Patil NP, Le V, Sligar AD, et al. Algal Polysaccharides as Therapeutic Agents for Atherosclerosis. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2018;5. doi:10.3389/fcvm.2018.00153
  • Patil N, Gómez-Hernández A, Zhang F, et al. Abstract 11489: Oral Rhamnan Sulfate Reduces Vascular Inflammation and Atherosclerotic Plaque Formation. Circulation. 2021;144(Suppl_1):A11489-A11489. doi:10.1161/circ.144.suppl_1.11489
  • [preprint] Patil NP, Gómez-Hernández A, Zhang F, et al. Rhamnan Sulfate Reduces Atherosclerotic Plaque Formation and Vascular Inflammation. Published online February 10, 2022:2022.02.10.479785. doi:10.1101/2022.02.10.479785
  • Terasawa M, Hayashi K, Lee JB, et al. Anti-Influenza A Virus Activity of Rhamnan Sulfate from Green Algae Monostroma nitidum in Mice with Normal and Compromised Immunity. Marine Drugs. 2020;18(5):254. doi:10.3390/md18050254
  • Shimada Y, Terasawa M, Okazaki F, et al. Rhamnan sulphate from green algae Monostroma nitidum improves constipation with gut microbiome alteration in double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Sci Rep. 2021;11(1):13384. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-92459-7
  • Suzuki K, Terasawa M. Biological Activities of Rhamnan Sulfate Extract from the Green Algae Monostroma nitidum (Hitoegusa). Mar Drugs. 2020;18(4). doi:10.3390/md18040228
  • Terasawa M, Hiramoto K, Uchida R, Suzuki K. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Orally Administered Monostroma nitidum Rhamnan Sulfate against Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Damage to Mouse Organs and Vascular Endothelium. Mar Drugs. 2022;20(2):121. doi:10.3390/md20020121

Arterosil HP Contains Rhamnan Sulfate From Monostroma nitidum

The core ingredient of Arterosil HP is MonitumRS®, a proprietary extract of rhamnan sulfate from Monostroma nitidum.


Important Notice

The information on this webpage is for licensed healthcare practitioner education only, and is not to be disseminated to the general public.